- 10.0.5520 for SQL Server 2008 SP3.
- 10.50.4033 for SQL Server 2008 R2 SP2.
- 11.0.3153 for SQL Server 2012 SP1.
- 12.0.2254 for SQL Server 2014.
It looks like the Security Update only affect SP1 of SQL Server 2012.
Usually the SQL Server Database Engine service restart twice - one time to come up in Single-User Mode and the second time to come up in normal Multi-User Mode.
This is different on the versions, where SQL Server 2014 does the Single-User Mode restart without further logging in the SQL Server Errorlog.
On SQL Server 2012 the Database Engine service also restarts, but come up in Script Upgrade Mode with detailed logging on the execution of the upgrade scripts. The logging takes 2000+ lines in SQL Server Errorlog, which I will not trouble you with here.
The Update itself takes up to a few minutes. It depends...
ReferenceAgain it was a great help that the unofficial but well-known „Microsoft SQL Server Version List“ was updated.
In general I also like to keep an eye on „Update Center for Microsoft SQL Server“, which is on Microsoft TechNet and can be regarded as Microsoft official.
The abbreviations like GDR and SP are well explained at Microsoft SQL Server Version List, but you can get the Microsoft background at „An Incremental Servicing Model…“ from Microsoft Support and at the wikipedia article „Software release life cycle“.